There are two aspects of investing that are often in war with each other. Fear and Simplicity.
This post is going to look at these two traits of investors.
While Fear is a natural human reaction to market gyrations and an impediment to investments, lack of simplicity on the other hand is another destructive feature of investor behavior.
For any investor starting on the journey of personal finance and investment, fear is the first thing that comes to play. Following are very common symptoms and questions.
- What if the stock market goes into a downward spiral?
- What if the real estate that I buy goes down in value or the rental property is trashed?
- Even with perceptibly safe investments like bank CDs and money market, the bank can run into liquidity issues or simply go out of business.
It is this kind of fear, especially the one regarding stock market that keep investors waiting on the sidelines for months and years. And then when the stock market is up, they become euphoric and participate in the bubble, only to confirm their worst fears when the market tanks.
On the other hand, as an investor matures and gets the thrill of investing in the stock market, real estate, he becomes bolder and starts investing in all sorts of esoteric investments like lending products, life insurance cash value and derivatives, futures, options.
While it is good to constantly look for opportunities to make your investments work, one of the fundamental rules of good investment is : “Invest only in what you understand.”
This has become a cliche since the time Warren Buffet revealed that he has followed this principle throughout his investment career. However very few investors have the discipline to keep their portfolios that simple to understand.
Sometimes it is also done in the pretext of diversification. But there are enough easy to understand investment avenues that give instant diversification.
In this post, I wish to provide some solutions on how to deal with these two conflicting behaviors, which are destructive to wealth building.
- Confront the fear – know thyself and create a plan
- Disciplined investing – Time is more important than timing
- Correct Diversification – Choose products with built-in diversification
- Asset allocation ratios – How to diversify across asset classes
- Unconventional investments – Tear down the cover
- Load than buy new – Grow vertically, not horizontally
Confront the fear – Create a plan
The best way to address the fear of the stock market and other investing factors is to have a plan.
A plan consists of a hierarchical set of investments that cushion the risk. The plan has to be highly customized to the individual but here are some generic guidelines.
- Have an emergency fund – Keep a stash of money in low risk bank accounts (with FDIC guarantee) that can act as ready money available in a bad economy and job loss, unexpected expenses etc. Typically the stock market takes about 12-18 months to recover when it tanks, so some people can be ultra-conservative (specially if one is planning to retire early) and keep cash to tide over expenses for these 12-18 months.
- From your monthly budget for investments, allocate a small portion (10%) to play-it-safe, for example to grow the emergency fund or some kind of fixed income investment.
- Invest in well diversified index funds first before any other investment. These are low cost and perform well over a long period of time. The S&P 500 index is known to return about 9-10% over multiple decades of time period.
- Assign a time value to each investment account and invest accordingly. For example, 401-k accounts are for long term, brokerage account can be for medium term and CDs for very short term. That way, there will not be any pressure to withdraw or sell when the market or economy tanks.
- Go slow and do it right with real estate investment. This is the biggest investment we make in our lives and for most people, it is emotional and hence not done with right investment mindset.
Disciplined investing – Time in the market is more important than timing
There are times when we read about a particular investment or hear about it on the news channel, and want to jump in right away. For example, this year 2019, REITs performed exceptionally well and the Internet is full of articles on how to invest in REITs.
But next year it may not be the same. Does it mean I do not invest in REITs? I do invest but in a defined proportion and in the account that is shielded from distribution tax.
Similarly chasing the highest performing stock or mutual fund will result in only speculation, not investment.
- Keep your investment in a monthly mode once chosen, by setting up automatic investment plan.
- If you are well diversified, you do not need to worry about which asset class is over-performing. That is the purpose of diversification, isn’t it?
- Time in the market is more important than timing the market. This simply says keep investing in the same asset month after month without worrying about Mr. Market.
Correct Diversification – Choose products with built-in diversification
Mutual funds, ETFs, REIT Index funds are all products with built-in diversification.
Yet there are portfolios that I have seen which are over diversified. For example, holding more than 4-5 mutual funds with overlapping portfolios does not make sense.
Here are few models of simple diversification:
- Total US Stock Market Index Fund
- Total International Stock Market Index Fund
- Total US/World Bond Index Fund
- Global REIT Index Fund
I personally have the following combination – 6 funds at present but I am always looking to consolidate with less. May be the last two can be combined with a Total World Stock Index Fund.
- S&P 500 Index Fund
- Small Cap Index Fund
- Global REIT Index Fund
- US Bond Index Fund
- International Index Fund
- Emerging Markets Index Fund
Asset allocation ratios – How to diversify across asset classes
While the above Mutual Funds or ETFs give instant diversification, they are still victims of the volatility of the trading market.
The stock market instruments can move higher or lower depending on the overall sentiments in the economy. However due to automatic investing and reducing the risk in a hierarchical manner, it should be okay to digest this volatility.
Although the mutual funds provide in-built diversification in stocks, bonds – there can be other investment outside the stock market that will diversify at the asset category level.
The following asset classes can be added to a portfolio to spread the risk evenly.
- Cash and cash equivalents like CDs, money market.
- Stock mutual funds and ETFs.
- Real Estate Investment Trusts or REIT Index Funds.
- Private REIT like Fundrise.
- Real Estate buy-and-hold as rental properties, own homes.
- Commodities like gold, silver.
Unconventional investments – Tear down the cover to reveal the costs
There are ambiguous investments where the returns are packaged in a way to show it as an attractive investment. Some of these are wrapped around insurance products, while others are mere speculative in nature.
Sometimes these are also packaged as guaranteed return products like annuities, fixed income insurance products etc. While there is nothing wrong in guaranteed return products, these need to be analyzed to see what return they are actually producing.
The concept of IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and NPV (Net Present Value) provide powerful tools to calculate the real return that can be compared to more traditional instruments like treasury bonds, stocks and mutual funds.
Recently I was offered a product in India where I have to pay X amount per year as premium for 12 years, and then I will get a guaranteed return of 2X per year for next 12 years. It sounds interesting as it guarantees a cash flow in future and produces a absolute double return of the original investment.
But when you put it through the IRR formula for 12 + 12 years, you will see the return is close to 5%. 5% guaranteed return can still be good, if I am okay to leave the money invested for so long. These products typically have very little liquidity. Hence I would have been stuck in the contract for next 12-24 years for a return of 5%. Why not invest simply in stock mutual funds, which should produce more than 5% and with much better liquidity if kept out of IRA accounts?
Similarly I have been offered Guaranteed NAV plans (NAV – net asset value), where it is market linked but the company is guaranteeing a limited upside. The problem is not that we cannot take advantage of such instruments, but we need to understand that thoroughly.
One question to ask always: How is the company making money out of this? If you probe with this mindset, you will see things that were designed to be overlooked by the investor. For mutual funds, I know the answer is very transparent – through the Gross Expense Ratio in most cases.
Load than churn- Grow vertically, not horizontally
Anyone who has done day trading knows the extremes of churning. However individual portfolios are also susceptible to churning by high-beta fund managers, or the investor himself as he loses patience to hold on to a particular investment.
With 3-4 mutual funds in the portfolio, it takes a lot of patience and courage to stick to them when your investment brain is screaming – Do Something, its been a year!!
The best way to get around this very humane behavior, is to divert your attention to saving and investing more, rather than changing your investment vehicles.
If you have to do something, take a look at your monthly budget, analyze your spending and see if you can LOAD up the existing investments rather than CHURN them.
The above steps address both the fear in the minds of investors and also gives them a simple formula to allocate their investments with complete understanding.
My investments are diversified in the following manner, and are stacked in decreasing amount of risk.
- Cash in the bank, money markets.
- Stock Mutual Funds – passively managed.
- Stock Mutual funds – actively managed.
- Public REIT Index funds
- Private REIT – Fundrise
- Real Estate holdings
- Unit Linked Insurance Plans (well understood ones)
This is as much diversified as it can be.
- #1 and #2 provides enough cushion.
- #2, #3 and #4 are volatile and longer term, but liquid.
- #5, #6 and #7 are the only non-liquid investments, and I am careful to maintain the ratio of such investments to less than 50% of overall net worth. Only real estate can skew this ratio, since this is a high value and often appreciating asset.
Put your best foot forward with diversified shoes, but ones that you feel comfortable in.
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